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Farm construction and design

fine breed,nutrition and feeding management science,disease Control and Prevention,Scientific management and Livestock engineering measures are the five pillars of the modern chicken production.And it is an organic whole, in any one part of the problem , can cause serious economic losses.modernization Breeding enterprise establish a sound technical system in the first four areas,In the highly competitive market, bad conditions company or self-employed also can enjoy good after-sale technical service,related technical issues can be properly addressed.

However the siting of farm,construction engineering design and other livestock are easy to ignore,Causing farm ( house ) environment is difficult to control,planted safety hazards of environmental conditions and disease control,and farms high investment in fixed assets,Not easily converted,Impact of long- time,so we should pay full attention to site selection,planning of farms and the design and construction of livestock sheds engineering measures,reach farm ( house ) construction standardization,getting a solid foundation for future long-term development.

Site selection

Site selection should first consider the construction and development of local land use plans and village development plans,Secondly, we should meet the requirements of environmental protection,In the field of water resources, tourist areas ,nature reserves,etc must not invest in protected areas,in order to avoid causing all kinds of resources waste for moving address after the completion of the demolition. After meeting the planning and environmental requirements,then consider the natural conditions ( including terrain , topography, soil , water, weather conditions, etc. ) , social conditions ( including water , electricity, transportation , etc. ) and health and epidemic prevention conditions of the proposed site, decided to build the field address.Sites should be high and dry,flat, located in the downwind of residential and public buildings.You can not select the valley depressions and other vulnerable sections of flood threats and serious environmental pollution area.Should be possible to use non-arable land ,to select the sunny slope of hills and mountains in the construction,gradient not more than 20 °, soil quality in line with national standards (GB15618-1995)standard, to meet the construction needs of hydrogeology and engineering geology conditions, adequate water,access to convenient,easy protection,adequate and reliable electricity , in line with national standards (GB52-83) requirements.

Epidemic conditions in farm siting process should be given adequate attention ,the quality of veterinary health epidemic prevention is one of the key factors to success farms .Pay particular attention to whether the veterinary station for animal husbandry nearby , orientation relationship livestock farms,markets,slaughterhouses,as well as with the orientation relationship of proposed field,Isolation conditions,etc,Should be far away from these sources.Under the premise to ensure biosafety , creating convenient traffic conditions , but with distance for main traffic trunk and villages greater more than 1000M, secondary roads 100-200M, in order to meet the requirements of health and disease prevention .

Planning and layout

The principle of farm programs is to meet the health and epidemic prevention and other conditions, construct compactly ,in the meaning time of saving land and meet current production needs , while considering the possibility of future expansion and renovation .

Chicken farms partitions can be divided into management areas , production areas and isolated areas.Each functional area should be well-defined , easy to contact .Management District and the production area should set gates, pool disinfection and sterilization room.Management district should be located at upwind of perennial dominant wind and higher ground,Including office facilities and the production facilities closed touched with the outside world , set up the main gate , and set disinfect the pool.

Production area can be divided into several areas,the distances between them are in the 300m or more,a number of buildings within each cell coop, Considering factor of epidemic prevention for the coop, sewage , fire and dominant wind and sheds angles,etc.Coop to coop distance is 3 to 5 times of the height of coop.

Quarantine area should located downwind Department and the presence of low-lying place , including veterinary room, isolated sheds and so on.To prevent cross contamination, there must be a special path connected with the outside world. Field area set net road and dirt road,dirt road connected to the back door,both strictly separated,can not cross,mix.

Green field area is an important part of the planning and construction of farms ,must combine between the district and the district , the distance between the homes and the homes , the need for shade and windbreak.According to local realities, plant trees,flowers and grass which can landscaping,air cleaning,should not planted poisonous plants or those with Fei Xu.

Architectural design of sheds

Rational design of sheds, can make temperature and moisture be controlled within the appropriate range,play genetic potential for chickens, for achieving maximum economic benefits to create the necessary environmental conditions.Either closed sheds , or open house ,Ventilation and thermal insulation and light design is the key ,it is to maintain a good environment conditions sheds important guarantee , and can effectively reduce costs.

Ventilation design is an effective way to regulate coop environmental conditions,Not only can bring the fresh air in, discharge the ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other harmful gases,but also adjust the temperature, humidity,So in the architectural design of the house it must be paid attention to ventilation design .Ventilation is based on the heat balance calculation or the harmful gases concentration control.Under a reasonable stocking density conditions,Ventilation rate for per kilogram of body weight of laying hens in the following table.Broiler fast growth, metabolism, ventilation rate should be slightly larger .

Ventilation rate for per kilogram of body weight of laying hens under different temperature conditions ( m 3 / per piece every hour)

Temperature(℃)5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Ventilation volume :1.8 2.3 2.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.3

There are two natural ventilation ways they are natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation,Inlet and outlet design for wind should be reasonable,avoiding dead space and strong wind or other inclement weather.

Natural ventilation is using the natural wind (wind pressure) and temperature differences between inside and outside chicken sheds(heat pressure) to make air flow,So that the air inside and outside the house to swap.Ventilation design must be considered together with the process design, civil engineering design,Such as building orientation , the wind orientation inlet elevation ,interior layout, and other equipment must be comprehensively arranged,while ensuring ventilation ,it is conducive for lighting, and implementing other various health measures.Naturally ventilated sheds span can not be too large,6 to 7.5 meters is appropriate,the maximum should not be more than nine meters .

The effect of wind pressure is bigger than heat pressure,if no wind,still need relying on temperature differences to ventilate,In order to avoid offset temperature differences when the wind effect,should be based on the local main wind direction, below the windward ( upwind ) set the air intakes , the upper leeward ( downwind ) set exhaust ports. It is advantageous that ventilating tubes on the roof of house,When the wind and the temperature difference influencing respectively or together,it all can discharge gas,especially in the summer, the temperature difference between inside and outside homes is small.when designing,wind ducts must be 60 to 100cm higher than roof, covered with wind storm hat, wind ducts inside the shed can not be less than 60 cm, In order to easily adjustment, it should be installed within the insulation adjustment board, for open or close at any time.

Mechanical ventilation using mechanical power to swap the air inside and outside the sheds forcibly. Mechanical ventilation can be divided into positive pressure ventilation and negative pressure ventilation.Positive pressure ventilation is using fans to bring the fresh air outside forcibly into sheds,so that inside pressure is higher than outside,it will discharge the polluted air outside homes.Negative pressure ventilation is using fans to discharge the polluted air in the shed forcibly,so that inside pressure is slightly lower than atmospheric pressure, air outside flows into sheds by itself by inlet. This ventilation mode is less investment ,simple management ,wind speed entering is slow,chicken feel more comfortable.Due to the small transverse ventilation velocity ,more dead angles and other disadvantages,generally,we use longitudinal ventilation mode.

Fans for longitudinal ventilation concentrate in gable of sheds dirt road or on the both walls near gable.Wind inlets are opened on the gable of clean road or both sides of the walls,the rest of the doors and windows are all closed,So that air entering the house were flowing along the longitudinal axis of the Chicken Coop,Fans will be discounted the polluted air outside coops, the key design for longitudinal ventilation is making it produce a uniform high air velocity in coop,and air flow along the longitudinal axis in the chicken coop,thus the fan should be located in the lower part of gables.

Ventilation should be designed according to the maximum value of chicken house in summer ventilation,calculating exhaust amount of fans,In order to meet the needs of different seasons. When the exhaust amounts are all the same,reduce the cross-sectional space,so as to increase the wind velocity in the sheds,Therefore for triangle roof coop,you can use curtains separate the triangular roof trusses every three rooms, so as to reduce the flow cross-section.for the coops whose length is too long,you must consider the issue of ventilation uniformly inside the chicken coop,add more wind inlets on the both sides wall in the middle of coops.According to the air pollution in the sheds and outside temperature,etc, to decide to open the quantity of fans.

You can use coal-fired stove, gas stove,warm air,electric brooder or brooders for heating temperature control design.The biggest advantage for the warm stove is convenient , fast heating,However the stove is easy to pour smoke , indoor air pollution.Advantages for the warm stove approach is heating up fast, but the drawback is dry indoors,relative humidity is at around 35% , it is difficult to improve the discounted humidity,not conducive to healthy chicks.Firewall or flue ways for heating is smokeless air pollution , sanitation and clean , day and night for temperature equilibrium , the temperature difference is relatively reduced , speaking from the fuel supply , coal , wood can are convenient matter which ways,ensure that chickens living areas suitable temperature, uniform is the key,Ground temperature must meet the requirements , and covered with dry, soft bedding.

Summer temperatures lead to weight loss, reduced feed efficiency , low survival rate , economic efficiency ,Therefore in coop building, insulation materials should be used , and take the necessary measures to cool.When the ambient temperature exceeds 32 ℃ , the increase in the ventilation rate does not provide a comfortable cool environment , the only effective way is to use evaporative cooling method.Commonly we used wet curtain cooling method.The principle of wet curtain cooling is composed of multi-layer corrugated fiber paper by the evaporation of water, so that the air cooling multilayer fiber paper space make homes air through the corrugated into the hen house, reducing the temperature inside the shed.If local conditions allows,you can use soaking wet curtain with deep wells water, the temperature inside the chicken coop can drop 6 ~ 14 ℃.

Lighting design is an important factor for poultry house environment, not only affect the health and productivity of chickens, duration and intensity of illumination chicken and lights different colors also affect sexual function.In order to get the optimum lighting discounted , usually combine natural light and artificial light camera.light and temperature are all the same, as should be uniform throughout the house , otherwise it will cause uneven density , and ultimately affect the uniformity of the chickens flock.

Natural light is to make direct sun light or scattered light through the exposed part or the window of sheds, in order to achieve the purpose of lighting.Natural light area depends on the window areas,the larger window area,the more light to enter the shed.But the area is not only light and heat in winter and hot in summer radiation contradictory , but also closely related with summer ventilation .Therefore, various factors should be considered, reasonably determining the lighting area .

artificial illumination lighting supplement the lack of natural light,and can be established in accordance with the biological requirements of the animals .Generally use the lamp as a light source . install lights and power control switch in sheds,controlled according to the requirements of different ages and in different seasons of light natural illumination time ,to make poultry production to achieve the best performance.during the first two weeks for breeding broiler,Light 2-3W / m2, after it, 0.75 W / m2, layers are same as broiler,incubation period is reduced to 1-1.3 W / m2,18-20 weeks to extend the exposure time,Increasing light intensity to 4-5 W / m2,to promote the improvement of egg .

Farm selection and farm building reasonable design is prerequisites of Safety production, good economic in the future,In the farm ( house ) building design process, should be a high standard of design,Otherwise it will cause environmental conditions decline ,In particular, the breeder would have a negative lifetime performance,irreversible effects,thus affecting the economic.Livestock design engineering facilities should be put into use according to the environmental conditions ,In order to create the best environmental conditions , full genetic potential to achieve best value for money .Otherwise a short period of non-compliance of environmental conditions may affect the lifetime performance , for example, in the brood of harsh environmental conditions , the impact of chick development, will affect future production performance and ultimately affect economic efficiency.

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Erika Feng

Ms. Erika Feng



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